Rowlatt Act Was Called as Black Law Give ReasonAdmin
The army was called up to Punjab, and on April 13, residents of nearby villages gathered for Baisakhi Day celebrations and protested the deportation of two key Indian leaders to Amritsar, which led to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919.   Violent clashes broke out in some places, particularly in Delhi and Punjab, where the army had to be called. Two congressional leaders, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal, were also arrested. When the violence did not stop, Gandhi suspended the satyagraha. The Rowlatt Act angered the nation. The immediate fallout was the Rowlatt Satyagraha, demanded by Mahatma Gandhi less than three weeks later, on April 6, 1919. As a result, Indians would refrain from going to work and holding meetings against the repressive law. * Police could arrest people without explanation Then, in March 1919, the British introduced one of the most hated laws in India.
It was called the “Rowlatt Act” and had far-reaching consequences for the freedom movement. The official name of the legislation was the Anarchic and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, a dead gift to the colonial administration`s intentions. The British colonial government passed the Rowlatt Act, which gave police the power to arrest anyone without cause. The purpose of the law was to contain the growing nationalist rise in the country. Mahatma Gandhi called on the people to perform Satyagraha against the law.   The Rowlatt Act was passed on March 18, 1919 and called the “Black Act” and sparked national outrage. It was based on a committee headed by Sidney Rowlatt and modelled on the Defence of India Act 1915. The latter, enacted during the First World War (1914-18), gave “extraordinary powers” to the police and allowed for “emergency measures” to deal with people who posed a threat to national security while Britain was fighting a world war. Unpopular legislation provided for stricter control of the press[a] arrests without warrant,[b] indefinite detention without trial, and jurors in trials for prohibited political acts[c] Defendants were denied the right to know prosecutors and evidence used in the trial. [e]  Convicts were required to provide guarantees upon release and were not allowed to participate in political, educational, or religious activities.  Following the report of the committee, chaired by Justice Rowlatt, two bills were introduced in the Central Legislative Assembly on February 6, 1919.  These bills are known as “black bills.” They gave the police enormous powers to search a place and arrest anyone they disapproved of without a warrant.
Despite much opposition, the Rowlatt Act was passed on March 18, 1919. The purpose of the law was to contain the growing nationalist rise in the country. Under the Rowlatt Act of 1919, the Chief Justice had the power to rule on the immediate detention of the accused between trial and bail to ensure proper application of the law. The Act also provides for a penalty for disobedience to an order issued under sections 22 and 27 of the Act, which is a maximum term of imprisonment of six months or a fine of Rs 500 or both. The Rowlatt Act went into effect on March 21, 1919. In Punjab, the protest movement was very strong, and on the 10th. In April, two Congress leaders, Dr. Satyapal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, were arrested and secretly taken to Dharamsala.
  Passed on the recommendation of the Rowlatt Committee and named after its chairman, Sir Sidney Rowlatt, the Act authorized the British colonial government to imprison for up to two years anyone suspected of terrorism living in British India, and gave colonial authorities the power to deal with all revolutionary activities. It was the Rowlatt Act that brought Gandhi into the mainstream of the struggle for India`s independence and ushered in the Gandhi era of Indian politics. Jawaharlal Nehru described Gandhi`s participation in the protests in his Insights into World History: * Trials could be conducted without a jury for “prohibited political acts.” But the wave of anger grew and a few days later the massacre of Jallianwala Bagh took place in Amritsar. 13. In April 1919, the people of Amritsar had gathered in a fenced garden to celebrate the Baisakhi holiday and also to condemn the arrest of the two Congress leaders during the Rowlatt demonstrations. The violence and bloodshed unleashed by the Rowlatt Act had dragged Mahatma Gandhi into the whirlwind of the freedom movement, and he launched his non-cooperation movement in 1920, which opened a new chapter in India`s struggle for freedom. Rowlatt Acts, (February 1919), a bill passed by the Imperial Legislative Council, the legislature of British India. These laws allowed certain political cases to be tried without a jury and suspects to be detained without trial. Its purpose was to replace the repressive provisions of the Defence of India Act (1915) with a permanent law. They were based on the 1918 report of the S.A.T.
Rowlatt Justice Committee. The Rowlatt laws were strongly opposed by a restless Indian public. All unofficial Indian members of the council (i.e. those who were not colonial government officials) voted against the laws. Mahatma Gandhi organized a protest movement that led directly to the Amritsar massacre (April 1919) and subsequently to his non-cooperation movement (1920-22). The laws were never really enforced. Mahatma Gandhi, among other Indian leaders, was extremely critical of the law, arguing that not everyone should be punished in response to isolated political crimes. Madan Mohan Malaviya, Mazarul Haque and Muhammad Ali Jinnah, a member of the All-India Muslim League, resigned from the Imperial Legislative Council in protest against the bill.   The bill also angered many other Indian leaders and the public, prompting the government to take repressive measures. Gandhi and others thought constitutional opposition to the measure was unsuccessful, so a hartal was held on April 6.  This was an event where Indians suspended businesses and went on strike and fasted, prayed and held public meetings against the Black Act as a sign of their opposition and civil disobedience to the law. Mahatma Gandhi bathed in the sea in Mumbai and delivered a speech to a procession at Madhav Baug Temple.
  This event was part of the non-cooperation movement. The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, commonly known as the Rowlatt Act, was a law that applied in British India. It was an Act of the Legislative Council, passed on July 18. It was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi in March 1919 and extended indefinitely the emergency measures of indefinite pre-trial detention, detention without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during World War I. It was decreed in light of a perceived threat by revolutionary nationalists to re-engage in conspiracies similar to those that had occurred during the war, which the government believed that the expiration of India`s Defence Act would make possible.      By early 1919 he was very ill. No sooner had he recovered than the agitation of Rowlatt Bill filled the country. He also joined the public outcry. But this voice was somehow different from the others. It was quiet and low, and yet it could be heard above the shouts of the crowd; It was soft and soft, and yet the steel seemed to be hidden somewhere in it; It was polite and full of calling, and yet there was something dark and scary about it; Every word used was meaningful and seemed to carry a deadly seriousness.
Behind the language of peace and friendship lie the strength and trembling shadows of action and determination not to submit to injustice. It was very different from our daily policy of condemnation and nothing else, long speeches always ended with the same senseless and ineffective protest resolutions that no one took very seriously.