Ostracism Legal Definition

Ostracism Legal Definition

In the following decades, when the threat of tyranny was remote, ostracism seems to have been used as a means of deciding between radically opposed policies. For example, in 443 BC, Thucydides, son of Melesia (not to be confused with the historian of the same name), was outlawed. He led aristocratic opposition to Athenian imperialism and in particular to Pericles` program of building on the Acropolis, financed by taxes created for the wars against the Achaemenid Empire. With Thucydides` expulsion, the Athenian people sent a clear message about the direction of Athenian policy. [23] Similar but equally controversial claims have been made about the outlawing of Cimon in 461 BC. [2] Although ten years of exile would have been difficult for an Athenian to bear, they were relatively light compared to the type of sentences imposed by the courts. By dealing with politicians who acted against the interests of the people, Athenian jurors could impose very severe punishments such as death,[15] countless heavy fines, confiscation of property, permanent exile, or loss of civil rights by Atimia. [2] Moreover, the ostracism-ostacious Athenian elite were composed of rich or noble men who had connections or xenoi in the wider Greek world and who, unlike true exiles from abroad, could access their income in Attica. In Plutarch, who follows the anti-democratic line common in elitist sources, the fact that people may have been recalled early seems to be another example of the majority incoherence that was characteristic of Athenian democracy. Ten years of exile, however, have generally resolved what triggered the expulsion.

Exclusion is only a pragmatic measure; The concept of serving the full sentence is not applicable, since it is a preventive measure and not a punitive measure. [2] The first cases of people ostracized in the decade following the defeat of the first Persian invasion at Marathon in 490 BC. They were all related or associated with the tyrant Peisistratos, who had controlled Athens for 36 years until 527 BC. After his son Hippias was deposed with Spartan help in 510 BC. The family sought refuge with the Persians, and nearly twenty years later, Hippias landed with their invading force at Marathon. Persian tyranny and aggression were threats coupled with the new democratic regime in Athens, and ostracism was used against both. Since ostracism had been exercised by thousands of people over many decades of political and cultural developments, it did not serve a single monolithic purpose. Observations can be made on the results as well as on the original purpose for which it was created. In part, the ban became a lapsed procedure at the end of the fifth century because it was replaced by the paranolon graph, a regular trial in which a much larger number of politicians could be targeted, rather than just one per year as in the case of ostracism and with greater severity.

But this might already have seemed like an anachronism, as factional alliances organized around important men became less and less important in the later period, and the power lay more specifically in the interaction of the individual speaker with the power of the assembly and the courts. The threat to the democratic system at the end of the fifth century came not from tyranny, but from oligarchic coups, the threat of which became clear after two brief seizures of power in 411 BC. A.D. by “the four hundred” and 404 B.C. A.D. by “the thirty” who did not depend on individual powerful individuals. Exclusion has not been and has not been used effectively against the oligarchic threat. Exclusion, a political practice in ancient Athens, in which a prominent citizen who threatened the stability of the state could be banished without charge against him. (A similar device existed at different times in Argos, Miletus, Syracuse, and Megara.) In a fixed session in the middle of winter, the people decided without debate whether they would vote on exclusion (ostracophoria) a few weeks later. Any citizen with the right to vote could write the name of another citizen, and if a sufficiently large number wrote the same name, the outlaw man had to leave Attica within 10 days and remain aloof for 10 years. He remained the owner of his property. The outlaw must be carefully distinguished from exile in the Roman sense, which was accompanied by the loss of property and status and was for an indefinite period (usually for life).

borrowed from neo-Latin ostracismus, borrowed from Greek ostrakismós, from ostrakãzein “to exclude” + -ismos -ism The prohibition in the context of computer networks (such as the Internet) is called “cyberostracism”. Especially in email communication, it is relatively easy to act tacitly, in the form of “unanswered emails”[30] or “ignored emails.” [31] Being ostracized on social media is seen as a threat to basic human needs for belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence. [32] Cyberrejection (receiving “dislikes” dislikes) has created a greater threat to the need for belonging and self-esteem and has led to social withdrawal. [33] Cyberostracism (being ignored or less “liked”[34]) leads to more prosocial behavior. [33] Ostracism is believed to be associated with social media disruption. [35] In an anecdote about Aristide, called “the Just,” who was outlawed in 482, an illiterate who did not recognize him came and asked him to write the name Aristide on his ostracon. When Aristides asked him why, the man replied because he was tired of hearing him call “the righteous.” [25] Perhaps the mere feeling that someone had become too arrogant or too important was enough to put someone`s name on an ostracon. Rituals of exclusion could also have been an attempt to prevent people from secretly committing the murder or murder of intolerable or aspiring leaders in order to create an open arena or outlet for those who harbor frustrations and original political impulses or motivations. The solution to murder, according to Gregory H.

Padowitz`s theory, would then be “exclusion,” which would ultimately be beneficial to all parties – the unfortunate individual would live and have a second chance, and society would be spared the ugliness of quarrels, civil war, political congestion and murder. [His] Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article on exclusion The ban (Greek: ὀστρακισμός, ostrakismos) was an Athenian democratic procedure in which every citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. While some cases clearly expressed public anger towards the citizen, ostracism was often used as a preventive measure. It was used to neutralize someone who was seen as a threat to the state or potential tyrants, although in many cases public opinion influenced the election. The word “exclusion” continues to be used for various cases of social avoidance.

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