Main Idea of Legal RealismAdmin
Examples of such laws that realists opposed included labor laws, which would allow management to replace striking workers, and contract laws, which allowed employers to terminate contracts with their employees at will without a legal reason. Well, this philosophical battle has been fought for many centuries. At its heart is the clash of two schools of jurisprudence known as “legal realism” and “legal formalism.” “Legal formalism” is probably what most people think of when they imagine how a judge thinks. “Legal formalism” is the idea that all political questions have been and must be posed by the legislator alone. Legal formalism is primarily about enforcing what the law actually says, not what it could or should say. It is a theory that law is a set of rules and principles independent of other political and social institutions. This theory is the most famous advanced by Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia. The law does not always follow the criteria according to which it is properly evaluated. Politics should be honest, but perhaps it is not; he should maintain the greatest good, but sometimes he does not; It must preserve human values, but it can struggle miserably.
This is what we would call the principle of moral fallibility. The argument is correct, but it is not the only property of positivism. The difference between these conditional and absolute choices is all that the philosophy of natural law requires to realize the concept of fallibility. It is often argued that positivism offers a more stable view of the fallibility of justice, because when we realize that it is a collective creation, we are less inclined to pay undue tribute to it and more able to indulge in a clear rational evaluation of the rule. Nevertheless, positivism is often more credibly associated with the belief that legal theory is or should be value-neutral. Of course, legal positivism is not an “evaluation of its subject,” that is, an evaluation of menstruation. Thus, the suggestion that the life of law is based on social reality does not force us to believe that it is a positive thing. Of course, there is a context in which each definition is filled with meaning. It selects and systematizes only a portion of the infinite number of facts on its subject. Legal realism is a naturalistic approach to law.
It was felt that jurisprudence should imitate the methods of the natural sciences, i.e. be based on empirical evidence. Hypotheses must be tested against observations of the world. [ref. needed] Legal realists believe that jurisprudence should examine law only through the worthless methods of the natural sciences, rather than through philosophical inquiries into the nature and meaning of law, which are separate and distinct from law as it is actually practiced. In fact, legal realism claims that the law cannot be separated from its application, nor can it be understood outside its application. As such, legal realism focuses on the law as it actually exists, not the law as it should be. By situating the importance of law in areas such as judges` legal opinions and their respect for or rejection of past precedents and the doctrine of stare decisis, he emphasizes the importance of understanding the factors involved in judicial decision-making. This article was written by Vividh Jain, a student at Nirma University Law Institute. In this article, the author challenges two general views on the relationship between the theories of so-called “legal realism” and “legal positivism” in jurisprudence. Legal realism reached its peak from the 1920s to the 1940s. In the 1950s, legal realism was largely supplanted by the legal litigation movement, which viewed law as a process of “reasoned elaboration” and asserted that appeals to “legislative ends” and other established legal norms could provide objectively correct answers to most legal questions.
In his 1961 book The Concept of Law, British legal theorist H. L. A. Hart dealt a “decisive blow” to legal realism by attacking the predictive legal theory that many realists had adopted from Holmes. Hart pointed out that if a law is just a prediction of what the courts will do, a judge thinking about the legal merits of a case before him really asks, “How am I going to decide this case?” As Hart notes, this completely overlooks the fact that judges use legal rules to guide their decisions, not as data to predict their eventual involvement. Appellate judges, on the other hand, tend to focus on the most abstract principles of law. That is because, first, they have never met with the litigants. Second, they are not under the same pressure that court judges must act quickly to clarify a case. Third, the decisions they make are often cited by future cases as a precedent to guide them in applying the law, so thorough legal reasoning is needed to prevent injustices in future decisions. For these reasons, I believe I have seen more success in the courts of appeal, where the law favours my side over the facts. A statistical method of natural language processing was used to automatically predict the outcome of cases heard by the European Court of Human Rights (violation or non-violation of a particular article) based on their textual content, achieving a prediction accuracy of 79%.  A subsequent qualitative analysis of these results provided some support for the theory of legal realism.
The authors write: “In general, and despite the simplified snapshot of a very complex debate we have just presented, our findings could be understood to support the basic legal and realistic intuition that judges respond primarily to non-legal rather than legal reasons when deciding difficult cases.” As a form of jurisprudence, legal realism is defined by the emphasis on the law as it actually exists in practice, rather than as it exists in books. To this end, he focused on the actions of judges and the factors influencing judicial decision-making processes. As Karl Llewellyn argues: “[t]he decisions are judges; Judges are men; As men, they have a human past.  Thus, law did not exist in a metaphysical domain of fundamental rules or principles, but was inseparable from human action and the power of judges to determine law. To understand the decisions and actions of legal actors, legal realists turned to social science ideas to understand human behavior and relationships that resulted in a particular legal outcome.  By realist legal theories, I mean theories that: (1) define what law is and how it functions in human cultures without sentimental or moralistic illusions (descriptive adequacy takes precedence over moralizing sermons); (2) to recognize that the law is rarely sufficient to justify the manner in which the courts decide all proceedings before them; and (3) indemnify justice and jurisprudence to the fullest extent of the law. By “legal positivism” I mean the interpretation of the essence of law that H.L.A. Hart most forcefully formulated in 1961, and that Joseph Raz evolved in the 1970s and 1980s, that (1) when there is a legal structure, there is a “rule of recognition” that defines the conditions under which norms are true right; and (2) the rule of law is nothing more than a complicated deception.