Legal Working Age in MyanmarAdmin
The requirement for children to work excessively and to use heavy, sharp equipment causes many short-term problems. Children are more susceptible to cuts and burns, as 49.6% of working children worldwide report cuts and one-third of all child burns are labour-related.121, 122 In Myanmar, working with sharp machines, knives and welding equipment puts working children at risk of these injuries.123 Without time to eat properly and take breaks, They are also more susceptible to illness, exhaustion and back pain.124 In Myanmar, the minimum age for admission to employment is 14 under the existing Labour Code and the new Child Rights Act passed last July. This is why, from an early age, children want to work to support the family and maintain traditional family structures.107 According to an ILO study, 77% of working children in Myanmar reported having made the decision to work.108 Children report initial feelings of excitement and pride when they start working.109 They are proud to contribute to the family and the economy: 80% of boys and 83% of girls say they like their job. Job.110 According to interviews with working children in Yangon, moving to Myanmar`s major cities can be seen as “an integral part of growth and life.” 111 Myanmar`s culture encourages children to assume their responsibilities towards their families, and working to support them financially is part of that responsibility. MyME was founded with a thorough understanding of child labour and Myanmar`s education system. It aims to empower children to escape dangerous work situations and find other opportunities. The program grew to 60 employees and 5 mobile-class buses in 2018. More than 10,000 working and out-of-school children have benefited from the programme. An attendance rate of 87 per cent is measured and more than 3,000 children are assisted each year. Graduation ceremonies are held for students completing their respective levels. In December 2018, 20 students received their entry-level certificates and 17 students received their Level 1 certificates.
The latest adjustment to Myanmar`s child labour policy is the Child Rights Act 2019. This stipulates that a person must be 14 years old to start working and that young people between the ages of 14 and 16 can work a maximum of four hours a day.83, 84 This law applies only to factories, shops or establishments and does not include the informal economy, in which nearly 60% of working children work.85 Children working in fishing, The forestry, livestock and home sectors are not subject to protective laws.86 In addition, the Ministry of Labour is not allowed to investigate farms and other settlements in the informal district, increasing the risk of unfair treatment of working children.87 Myanmar is the latest country to reaffirm its commitment to combating child labour, having signed an important international convention on the minimum age for admission to employment. The cultural emphasis on filial piety in Myanmar increases children`s expectations of participation from an early age. Although this cultural aspect does not lead directly to child labour, it partly explains the desire that many children must work to support their families.102 Depending on the hierarchical structure of the family, younger family members are expected to care for older family members. Child labour is seen as an opportunity for children to contribute to family unity and care for the family as a whole rather than taking care of themselves. A 2014 census in Myanmar and reports from the ILO and the Mon State Women`s and Children`s Rights Project provide qualitative evidence that in Myanmar, children are traditionally expected to help at home and, if necessary, financially.103, 104 Working children play an important role in the household economy, Most adults say they believe children work when necessary to help the family. Parents also see work as an opportunity to build character that benefits the child in many ways, rather than a negative experience.105 They can learn math skills and gain confidence by committing to the family to work.106 There are also many long-term health consequences to which children are more vulnerable in the workplace. Children need 9.5 hours of sleep per night to develop properly, which they typically cannot do with a strict work schedule of an average of 60 hours of work per week, often equivalent to that of adults.125 Children are also at higher risk of developing bone malformations and disabilities because workplaces require heavy loads and repetitive movements.
This can lead to ligament and muscle damage, leading to permanent disability.126 National laws and guidelines support the continued use of child labour. International intolerance of child labour has led Myanmar to regulate child labour. But instead of protecting children`s rights, legal systems perpetuate child labour. Due to the country`s economic situation, one in five households depends on small incomes from agricultural work and must find other ways to generate income.56, 57 Myanmar`s high poverty rates also contribute to child labour, as many families do not earn enough money to meet their basic needs and depend on children to generate additional income.